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[PDF] Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles (Energy, Power Electronics, And Machines)l


Abstract:The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs). Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM) motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG). Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.Keywords: permanent magnet machine; hybrid-excitation; memory motor; fault-tolerant control; power split; electric variable transmission; hybrid vehicles; electric vehicle




[PDF] Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles (Energy, Power Electronics, And Machines)l


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All-electric vehicles, also referred to as battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine. The vehicle uses a large traction battery pack to power the electric motor and must be plugged in to a wall outlet or charging equipment, also called electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Because it runs on electricity, the vehicle emits no exhaust from a tailpipe and does not contain the typical liquid fuel components, such as a fuel pump, fuel line, or fuel tank. Learn more about electric vehicles.


The International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), p-ISSN: 2088-8694, e-ISSN 2722-256X, is the official publication of the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES). This is a SCOPUS and ScimagoJR indexed journal, SJR Q3 on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, CiteScore: 3.3, SJR: 0.346, and SNIP: 0.638. The scope of the journal includes all issues in the field of power electronics, electric drives, and energy systems. Included are techniques for advanced power semiconductor devices; control in power electronics; low and high power converters (inverters, converters, controlled and uncontrolled rectifiers); control algorithms and techniques applied to power electronics; electromagnetic and thermal performance of electronic power converters and inverters; power quality and utility applications; renewable energy; electric machines; modelling, simulation, analysis, design and implementations of the application of power circuit components (power semiconductors, inductors, high frequency transformers, capacitors), EMI/EMC considerations; power devices and components; integrated and packaged; induction motor drives; synchronous motor drives; synchronous motor drives; permanent magnet motor drives; ASDs (adjustable speed drives); multi-phase machines and converters; applications in motor drives; electric vehicles; wind energy systems; solar; battery chargers; UPS; and other applications.


The melding of advanced embedded control, power electronics, and electric machines has created a new workhorse for industrial and consumer electromechanical energy conversion systems. Electrification will reduce the carbon dioxide output of our economy. Electric motors will replace many other sources of motive power for many industrial purposes. Actively-controlled electric machines are already bringing new profiles for position, speed, and force control, creating consumer products that were previously inconceivable at practical prices.Electric actuators are increasingly found in just about everything used for daily life, from automobiles to kitchen appliances to smart devices. Modern product design and industrial fabrication demand an understanding of electric machine characteristics, modern control techniques, and associated interactions with electronic drives. Computer-based tools for estimating machine parameters and performance can remarkably speed up a designer's understanding of when different control and machine design assumptions are applicable, and how gracefully these assumptions fail as performance limits are approached. Combinations of motors (electromechanics) and drives (power electronics) can synergistically achieve performance not possible through other means.


The paper begins by reviewing the status of EV and HEV, then focuses on the engineering philosophy of EV development. The following mentioned vehicles are new energy vehicles which are hybrid electric vehicles/plug-in electric vehicles (HEVs/PHEVs), electric batteries (BEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) [8]. BEVs featuring new energy vehicles will be the best option to improve air quality and reduce fuel consumption and future emissions. However, BEV performance is severely limited by battery capacity due to immature battery technology. Currently, BEVs are not yet well-known. Applications on a large scale still require older fuel cells, cost-effectiveness, and full support resources in FCVs. They think the combination of ICE and electric vehicle (EM) is the most likely way to detect hybrid topology. HEV/PHEV technology can be a different approach to CVs that are widely used in urban transport [9]. HEV/PHEV essential part is its hybrid powertrain. A hybrid powertrain has two energy sources.


Recently different researches have focused on EV topology exploration, emission-reduction, efficiency maximization strategies, cost-minimization, and power conversion technologies and their integration into the electric power grid. As shown in Figure 2, three major interconnected branches of EV technology have piqued the interest of academic and industrial R&D researchers: 1) Advanced electric drive system (EDS) [12] - [18], 2) Power generation and energy storage system (ESS) [19] - [24], 3) EV Construction.


Vehicles that do not use ICE, such as hybrid fuel cell vehicles, HFCVs, or battery electric vehicles, BEVs (HF = 1): BEVs or PHEVs, fall into this category. Since FC is a green technology part, HFCV is classified as an electric vehicle. A reformer on board the vehicle will remove stored hydrogen. The electrical machine will be powered by the electricity gained by the FC, which will usually be aided by a SC to boost its low power response.


Electrical drives transform electrical energy into mechanical energy in a regulated manner. An electrical machine, also known as an electro-mechanical energy converter, a power electronic converter, also known as an electrical-to-electrical converter, and a controller/communication unit make up an electrical drive. High-speed trains, elevators, escalators, electric ships, electric forklift trucks, and electric cars all use electrical drives as propulsion systems today. Torque control over a broad bandwidth is possible thanks to advanced control algorithms (mostly digitally implemented). As a result, precise motion control is possible. Drives in robots, pick-and-place machines, factory automation hardware, and so on are examples.


The most critical and distinguishing feature of a high dynamic performance traction drive is its rapid torque response. There are two operating regions in a well-controlled electric motor drive, constant torque and constant power. The typical torque/power-speed characteristic expected from traction motors for EVs and HEVs is depicted in Figure 8. The inverter current rating determines the maximum torque capability in the constant torque area. Due to inverter current and voltage limits, flux weakening or constant power area is used instead.


Eco-Friendly: One of the most significant features of hybrid electric vehicles over gasoline-powered automobiles is that these run smoother and get higher gas mileage, making them more eco-friendly. A hybrid electric vehicle has two engines: a gasoline engine and an electric motor, which reduces fuel consumption and saves electricity.


Applications include industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, vehicles, and disk drives. Small motors may be found in electric watches. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors, electric motors can be used in reverse as generators to recover energy that might otherwise be lost as heat and friction.


After many other more or less successful attempts with relatively weak rotating and reciprocating apparatus Prussian/Russian Moritz von Jacobi created the first real rotating electric motor in May 1834. It developed remarkable mechanical output power. His motor set a world record, which Jacobi improved four years later in September 1838.[21] His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river. It was also in 1839/40 that other developers managed to build motors with similar and then higher performance.


Electric motors revolutionized industry. Industrial processes were no longer limited by power transmission using line shafts, belts, compressed air or hydraulic pressure. Instead, every machine could be equipped with its own power source, providing easy control at the point of use, and improving power transmission efficiency. Electric motors applied in agriculture eliminated human and animal muscle power from such tasks as handling grain or pumping water. Household uses (like in washing machines, dishwashers, fans, air conditioners and refrigerators (replacing ice boxes)) of electric motors reduced heavy labor in the home and made higher standards of convenience, comfort and safety possible. Today, electric motors consume more than half of the electric energy produced in the US.[29]


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